Pollution is the effect of undesirable changes in our surroundings that have harmful effects on plants, animals and human beings. This occurs when only short-term economic gains are made at the cost of the long-term ecological benefits for humanity. No natural phenomenon has led to greater ecological changes than have been made by mankind. During the last few decades we have contaminated our air, water and land on which life itself depends with a variety of waste products. The nature and concentration of a pollutant determines the severity of detrimental effects on human health. An average human requires about 12 kg of air each day, which is nearly 12 to15 times greater than the amount of food we eat. Pollutants include solid, liquid or gaseous substances present in greater than natural abundance produced due to human activity, which have a detrimental effect on our environment. Thus even a small concentration of pollutants in the air becomes more significant in comparison to the similar levels present in food. Pollutants that enter water have the ability to spread to distant places especially in the marine ecosystem. To reduce this type of pollution which causes environment process this segment.
Air pollution: Air pollution occurs due to the presence of undesirable solid or gaseous particles in the air in quantities that are harmful to human health and the environment. Air may get polluted by natural causes such as volcanoes, which release ash, dust, sulfur and other gases, or by forest fires that are occasionally naturally caused by lightning. However, unlike pollutants from human activity, naturally occurring pollutants tend to remain in the atmosphere for a short time and do not lead to permanent atmospheric change. Pollutants that are emitted directly from identifiable sources are produced both by natural events (for example, dust storms and volcanic eruptions) and human activities (emission from vehicles, industries, etc.). These are called primary pollutants. There are five primary pollutants that together contribute about 90 percent of the global air pollution. These are carbon oxides (CO and CO2), nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds (mostly hydrocarbons) and suspended particulate matter. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless and toxic gas produced when organic materials such as natural gas, coal or wood are incompletely burnt. Vehicular exhausts are the single largest source of carbon monoxide. The number of vehicles has been increasing over the years all over the world. Vehicles are also poorly maintained and several have pollution control equipment resulting in release of greater amounts of carbon monoxide. Sulfur oxides are produced when sulfur containing fossil fuels are burnt. Nitrogen oxides are found in vehicular exhausts. Nitrogen oxides are significant, as they are involved in the production of secondary air pollutants such as ozone. Hydrocarbons are a group of compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms. They either evaporate from fuel supplies or are remnants of fuel that did not burn completely. Hydrocarbons are washed out of the air when it rains and run into surface water. They cause an oily film on the surface and do not as such cause a serious issue until they react to form secondary pollutants. Using higher oxygen concentrations in the fuel-air mixture and using valves to prevent the escape of gases, fitting of catalytic converters in automobiles, are some of the modifications that can reduce the release of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. Repeated exposure to particulates can cause them to accumulate in the lungs and interfere with the ability of the lungs to exchange gases. Lead is a major air pollutant that remains largely unmonitored and is emitted by vehicles. High lead levels have been reported in the ambient air in metropolitan cities. Leaded petrol is the primary source of airborne lead emissions in Indian cities. Pollutants are also found indoors from infiltration of polluted outside air and from various chemicals used or produced inside buildings.
Effects on human health: Sunburn, cataract, aging of the skin and skin cancer are caused by increased ultra-violet radiation. It weakens the immune system by suppressing the resistance of the body to certain infections , chicken pox and other viral diseases that elicit rash and parasitic diseases.
Effect on climate: Atmospheric changes induced by pollution contribute to global warming, a phenomenon which is caused due to the increase in concentration of certain gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, methane and CFCs. Observations of the earth have shown beyond doubt that atmospheric constituents such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides and Chloroform Carbons trap heat in the form of infra-red radiation near the earth’s surface.
The above diagram shows pollution control by rugged board which is connected to several sensor depends on their requirements in this session. Different types of sensor are connected those are Temperature sensor, weather sensor, Sensor for surface density and sensor for vehicle density.
In this session of process this are can be used to control pollution in a traffic zone, where normally heavy air pollution due to more exhaust of vehicles in a traffic junction. Normally pollution will of carbon monoxide this form exhaust by the vehicles. More pollution area causes anti-solution diseases, which harmful to human being and surrounding environment. This process will help to reduce pollution.
In this segments sensors are connected to the rugged board to communicate with peripherals and updating of real time sessions. Temperature sensor connected to rugged board which gives a real time temperature surrounding to traffic signal junction and sends the information to the municipal corporation nearby it. Similarly when the surface of the foam plate includes more density of carbon monoxide and pollutant materials sensor gets activated by the time and sends information to the nearest corporation office to change the foam plates which are reusable .It sends information with exact location of the machine by Gps (global positioning system) with latitude and longitude. Display is connected to update the info about present temperature, weather, and present area pollution surrounding at the junction and some good thoughts to save environment. Gsm is connected just to send information to the particular municipal corporation office zonal region.
Performance based on rugged board is easier to communicate with external peripherals based on their requirements.
Freedom to modify Schematics and layout sources of the Carrier board & Sensor modules
Proven process for Prototyping till Mass Manufacturing
Feature rich & highly cost optimized platform
Simple & Powerful Open Source Software IoT Stack
Each machine as a particular unique identity number which is updating with the area codes and differs in a sequential format. For ex: KABENKORM001 (It shows KA-Karnataka BEN-Bengaluru KOR-Koramangala .001-machine number). By this form sequence of machine unique code, easily finds the machine update, service time and replacement of plates.
This session is describes the process to control pollution mainly at the traffic junctions and industries zonal regions.